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备战阅读理解四技巧

http://cq.QQ.com  2010年05月20日17:39   《高考金刊》   
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对于高考阅读,同学们需要明白:考试阅读不同于平时我们看英语文章,它要求的核心首先是快速的判断力和逻辑思维,所以很多题目必须反向思考。如很多同义词必须学会找等效的词乃至句子,很多极端的说法都可能是不对的。

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阅读题是英语考试非常注重的部分,解题时同学们要知道:文章的内容是帮助你选择正确答案的部分依据,有些题目没有文章也可以选,因为我们有其他的选择依据,这些依据来自于对考试本身的了解和研究。下面以部分高考题为例,给同学们介绍四种解题技巧。

一、抓住关键名词,推测文章大意

词汇量不够,是一些英语成绩不太理想的同学在做阅读理解时最容易卡壳的地方,针对这一现象,笔者对近年各地阅读真题进行了研究,发现文章中出现频率较高的名词可以有助于理解文章大意,只要抓住了这些词,就可以推测出文章的主旨大意。

■ According to the passage, “collecting antique clocks” _____.

A. can hardly keep the value of your savings

B. will cost much of your

savings

C. may increase your wealth

D. needs your bravery

解析:题干问收集古钟怎么样?观察发现文章第一段和最后一段(见下)中出现频率较高的名词短语为: collecting antique clocks,而它总是和money, wealth, future profit这些关于钱的词同时出现,特别是最后的future profit更能帮助预测大意:古钟收集可以赚钱,故选C(增加财富)。此方法对做说明文或议论文有帮助,因为这两类文章都是用“呈现问题或对象→论证问题或说明对象→得出结论/阐明观点”的格式,所以在首尾两段的关键名词上把握大意很必要。

部分原文:

How should one invest a sum of money in these clays of inflation (通货膨胀)? Left in a bank it will hardly keep its value, however high the interest rate. Only a brave man, or a very rich one, dares to buy and sell on the Stock Market. Today it seems that one of the best ways to protect your savings, and even increase your wealth is to buy beautiful objects from the past. Here I am going to offer some advice on collecting antique clocks, which I personally consider are among the most interesting of antiques.

……

Antique clocks could be very expensive, but one of the joys of collecting clocks is that it is still possible to find quite cheap ones for your own home. After all, if you are going to be ruled by time, why not invest in air antique clock and perhaps make a future profit?

二、分析邻近逻辑,猜测生词词义

词汇量不足,会导致同学们对阅读中的猜词题无从下手。根据同一话题语义同现的原理(词汇搭配跟篇章主题有关,搭配词总会围绕着某主题出现在文章中),我们有理由相信生词及其前后的某些词都是围绕某个主题在使用。做题时,先找出生词出现的地方,再分析邻近词汇与它的逻辑关系,即可猜出生词。

■ The underlined phrase “stately homes” in paragraph 4 means_________.

A. state-owned houses

B. houses in very good condition

C. grand houses open to the public

D. houses where statesman meet regularly

解析:先找到该词出现的那句话: Indeed, any serious student of antique should spend as much time as possible visiting palaces, stately homes and museums to see some of the finest examples of clocks from the past. 从中我们注意到该生词前后有逗号和and,暗示前后为并列关系,所以生词和前后词的意思肯定是相同或相近的。根据前后词palaces, museum,我们能猜出大概是宫殿、博物馆之类的东西,结合选项,C项“向公众开放的房子”最符合题意。

三、通过文章首尾,解读最佳标题

巧读文章首段前两句,再读尾段后两句,理解大意,可以帮助我们快速选出文章最佳标题。因为此类题多用于说明文或议论文,这两类文章的特点决定了我们可以在文章首尾找到中心意思。

■ Which of the following would be the best title of for the passage?

A . Women are Socially Trained

to Talk

B. Talking Maintains Relationships

C. Women Love to Talk

D. Men Talk Differently from

Women

解析:(首段第1,2句)When women sit together to watch a movie on TV, they usually talk simultaneously(同时地) about a variety of subjects, including children, men, careers and what’s happening in their lives. When groups of men and women watch a movie together, the men usually end up telling the women to shut up.

(末段最后两句)Since a girl’s brain is better organized to send and receive speech, we therefore talk to them more. Consequently, mothers who try to talk to their sons are usually disappointed to receive only short grunts in reply.

从上四句不难看出,文章在说女性天生就喜欢讲话这一话题,所以选C。

四、利用关键词,破解细节题和推理判断题

对于阅读中的细节题,先找出题干关键词,再通过寻读快速找出关键词在文中出现的地方,根据该词前后的暗示就可以找出答案。

■ After seeing the good students’ designs, some students ______.

A . loved their own design more

B. thought they had a fair

chance

C. put their own designs in a corner

D. thought they would not win the prize

解析:题干关键词after seeing, good students’ design, 根据关键词,快速寻读发现关键词出现在第三段,含有关键词的原句如下: Some of us would wander past the good students’ desks and then return to our own projects with a growing sense of hopelessness. 通过观察发现该句的and then相当于after seeing的意思,此时会感觉答案会在and then之后,继续读下去就会找到破题的核心词hopelessness(没有希望),根据该词选出答案D(该答案的意思是一些学生认为他们不会获奖,正好和hopelessness“没有希望的”意思吻合。)

只要同学们对以上四种方法巧加利用,在考试答题过程中不用读懂整篇文章都可以达到事半功倍的效果。

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